A guide to how the Electoral College works

A beginner's guide to the electoral college, the body of delegates that determines every presidential election.


What is the Electoral College?

The Electoral College comprises delegates from each state and Washington, D.C., who are appointed by their respective state legislatures to cast a vote for a specific candidate. In essence, when you cast your vote for a presidential candidate, you're actually casting a vote for your state to appoint an elector who will officially vote for that candidate.

The concept of choosing electors was laid out in the Constitution, which mandates that the number of delegates each state receives is equal to the number of its Congressional representatives (Washington, D.C., receives the same number of electors as the least populous state). Currently, this means there are 538 voters in the Electoral College, with an absolute majority of at least 270 votes required to win an election.

How are electors chosen?

Each state legislature is allowed to determine how its own electors are selected. The only hard and fast rules, according to the Constitution, are that electors cannot be currently holding any federal office, nor can they have "engaged in insurrection or rebellion" against the nation.

Typically, political parties in each state nominate electors based on their consistency and loyalty to the party over the years, according to the National Conference of State Legislatures. This way, they can hopefully avoid the phenomenon of "faithless electors," who are nominated to vote for a specific party but end up changing their vote in the actual election.

Do we still need the Electoral College?

Almost 60% of Americans say no, according to Pew Research survey. The premise of an Electoral College was devised more than 200 years ago, when there were just 13 states and the only people allowed to vote were white land-owning men. The framers of the Constitution believed state-appointed delegates were necessary to represent the best interests of a largely uneducated, rural American population. Now, with more than 200 million diverse voters spread from coast to coast, concentrated in urban areas and more educated than ever, critics of the Electoral College say it's counterproductive to still be using the same system after more than two centuries of nationwide change.

Take, for example, the case of a swing state like Iowa, which ranks in the bottom half of the most populous U.S. states, yet has played a decidedly outsize role in determining the winners of most recent presidential elections. Because of how delegates are allotted, each of Iowa's six Electoral College votes represents about 525,000 Iowans, while California, the most populous state in the country, sees 718,000 Californians represented by each of its 55 Electoral College votes.

On top of all this, there's always the possibility of a faithless elector, who, in deciding not to vote for the candidate they were supposed to, completely negates a chunk of their state's popular votes. Currently, 33 states and Washington, D.C., have laws in place that bar members of the Electoral College from changing their votes, but only a handful of these laws actually penalize faithless electors and/or erase their changed votes.

So, does your vote count?

Absolutely. Regardless of how much (or how little) representative weight your vote may seem to carry in the Electoral College, elections can be determined by just a handful of votes in any state, big or small. Your vote could be the one that clinches a win for your candidate in your district, and your district could then act as a tipping point to clinch that win across the state, therefore prompting your state's electors to cast their votes for that candidate on the formal Electoral College ballot in December.

Too many elections have been decided not by unpredictable swing states, but by the millions of voters who stay home because they believe their vote doesn't count — so make sure you're registered and make a plan to vote today.